means that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research are not greater in and of themselves than those ordinarily encountered in daily life or during the performance of routine physical or psychological examinations or tests. 

•The probability and magnitude of possible harms implied by participation in the research is greater than those encountered in everyday life


•Studies on vulnerable groups


•Research carried out in an unstable or volatile setting


•Involves non-standard methodologies or approaches


•Presents risk to the personal safety of the researcher or research participant beyond what is normal in the setting


•Where there is a possibility the research maybe distressing to the researcher or research participant in one or more ways


Tel: 03-5544 8069   |   Fax: 03-5544 2794


Research Management Centre, 

Office of Deputy Vice Chancellor 

(Research and Innovation), 

Level 3 Bangunan Wawasan,

Universiti Teknologi MARA

40450 Shah Alam

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